Research Papers


A restatement of recent advances in the natural science evidence base concerning
neonicotinoid insecticides and insect pollinators.  H. Charles J. Godfray[1], Tjeerd Blacquie`re [2], Linda M. Field [3], Rosemary S. Hails [4], Simon G. Potts [5], Nigel E. Raine [6], Adam J. Vanbergen [7] and Angela R. McLean [1].
1)Oxford Martin School, c/o Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PS, UK
2)Plant Research International, Wageningen University and Research, PO Box 16, 6700 AA Wageningen,The Netherlands
3)Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Herts AL5 2JQ, UK
4)NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Crowmarsh Gifford, Wallingford OX10 8BB, UK
5)School of Agriculture, Policy and Development, University of Reading, Reading, UK
6)School of Environmental Sciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada N1G 2W1
7)NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Bush Estate, Penicuik, Edinburgh EH26 0QB, UK
Effects of a neonicotinoid pesticide on honey bee colonies: a response to the field study by Pilling et al. (2013). Peter Paul Hoppe [1], Anton Safer [2], Vanessa Amaral‑Rogers [3], Jean‑Marc Bonmatin [4], Dave Goulson [5], Randolph Menzel [6] and Boris Baer [7].
Bees prefer foods containing neonicotinoid pesticides.Sébastien C. Kessler [1], Erin Jo Tiedeken [2], Kerry L. Simcock [1], Sophie Derveau [3, Jessica Mitchell [4], Samantha Softley [1], Jane C. Stout [2] & Geraldine A. Wright [1].

Reconciling laboratory and field assessments of neonicotinoid toxicity to honeybees. Mickael Henry[1,2], Nicolas Cerrutti[2,3], Pierrick Aupinel[4], Axel Decourtye[2,5,6] Melanie Gayrard[3], Jean-Francois Odoux[4], Aure´lien Pissard[5], Charlotte Ruger[3] and Vincent Bretagnolle[7,8]

1)INRA, UR406 Abeilles et Environnement, 84914 Avignon, France
2)UMT Protection des Abeilles dans l’Environnement, Site Agroparc, 84914 Avignon, France
3)Terres Inovia, Centre de Grignon, Avenue Lucien Bre´tignie`res, 78850 Thiverval Grignon, France
4)INRA, UE1255, UE Entomologie, 17700 Surge`res, France
5)Association de Coordination Technique Agricole, Site Agroparc, 84914 Avignon, France
6)ITSAP–Institut de l’Abeille, Site Agroparc, 84914 Avignon, France
7)Centre d’Etudes Biologiques de Chize´, UMR 7372, CNRS and Universite´ de La Rochelle, 79360 Beauvoir-sur-Niort, France
8)LTER ‘Zone Atelier Plaine and Val de Se`vre’, Centre d’Etudes Biologiques de Chize´, CNRS, 79360 Villiers-en-Bois, France

EASAC policy report 26, April 2015, ISBN: 978-3-8047-3437-1
Ecosystem services, agriculture and neonicotinoids.


Impact of imidacloprid on life-cycle development of Coccinella septempunctata in laboratory microcosms” Caihong Yu, Ronghua Lin, Maoran Fu, Yanming Zhou, Fulin Zong, Hu Jiang, Ning Lv, Xiuying Piao, Jia Zhang, YongquanLiu, TheoC.M.Brock

Effects of neonicotinoids and fipronil on non-target invertebrates.” L. W. Pisa, V. Amaral-Rogers, L. P. Belzunces, J. M. Bonmatin, C. A. Downs, D. Goulson, D. P. Kreutzweiser, C. Krupke, M. Liess, M. McField, C. A. Morrissey, D. A. Noome, J. Settele, N. Simon-Delso, J. D. Stark, J. P. Van der Sluijs, H. Van Dyck, M. Wiemers.

Impact of Chronic Neonicotinoid Exposure on Honeybee Colony Performance and Queen Supersedure.” Christoph Sandrock, Matteo Tanadini, Lorenzo G. Tanadini, Aline Fauser-Misslin, Simon G. Potts, Peter Neumann

Widespread occurrence of neonicotinoid insecticides in streams in a high corn and soybean producing region, USA.” Michelle L. Hladik, Dana W. Kolpin, Kathryn M. Kuivila

Risks of large-scale use of systemic insecticides to ecosystem functioning and services.”
Madeleine Chagnon, David Kreutzweiser, Edward A.D. Mitchell, Christy A. Morrissey, Dominique A. Noome, Jeroen P. Van der Sluijs

Delayed and time-cumulative toxicity of imidacloprid in bees, ants and termites.”
Gary Rondeau, Francisco Sanchez-Bayo, Henk A. Tennekes, Axel Decourtye, Ricardo Ramırez-Romero & Nicolas Desneux.

Conclusions of the Worldwide Integrated Assessment on the risks of neonicotinoids and fipronil to biodiversity and ecosystem functioning.” J. P. van der Sluijs, V. Amaral-Rogers, L. P. Belzunces, M. F. I. J. Bijleveld van Lexmond, J-M. Bonmatin, M. Chagnon, C. A. Downs, L. Furlan, D. W. Gibbons, C. Giorio, V. Girolami, D. Goulson, D. P. Kreutzweiser, C. Krupke, M. Liess, E. Long, M. McField, P. Mineau, E. A. D. Mitchell, C. A. Morrissey, D. A. Noome, L. Pisa, J. Settele, N. Simon-Delso, J. D. Stark, A. Tapparo, H. Van Dyck, J. van Praagh, P. R. Whitehorn, M. Wiemers.

Declines in insectivorous birds are associated with high neonicotinoid concentrations.” Caspar A. Hallmann, Ruud P. B. Foppen, Chris A. M. van Turnhout, Hans de Kroon & Eelke Jongejans.


Chronic impairment of bumblebee natural foraging behaviour induced by sublethal pesticide exposure.” Richard J. Gill and Nigel E. Raine School of Biological Sciences, Royal Holloway University of London, Egham, Surrey TW20 0EX, UK


Godfray HCJ, Blacquie`re T, Field LM, Hails RS, Petrokofsky G, Potts SG,
Raine NE, Vanbergen AJ, McLean AR. 2014 “A restatement of the natural science evidence base concerning neonicotinoid insecticides and insect pollinators.” Proc. R. Soc. B 281:20140558.


Jones, Ainsley, Paul Harrington, and Gordon Turnbull. “Neonicotinoid Concentrations in Arable Soils After Seed Treatment Applications in Preceding Years.” Pest Management Science (2014).

A review of the direct and indirect effects of neonicotinoids and fipronil on vertebrate wildlife. David Gibbons & Christy Morrissey & Pierre Mineau, Environ Sci Pollut Res, June 2014, DOI 10.1007/s11356-014-3180-5

“Field realistic doses of pesticide imidacloprid reduce bumblebee pollen foraging efficiency”. Hannah Feltham, Kirsty Park, Dave Goulson. Ecotoxicology, April 2014, Volume 23, Issue 3, pp 317-323

Sub-lethal exposure to neonicotinoids impaired honey bees winterization before proceeding to colony collapse disorder. Chensheng LU1, Kenneth M. WARCHOL2, Richard A. CALLAHAN Bulletin of Insectology 67 (1): 125 – 130 , 2014 ISSN 1721-8861
1] Department of Environmental Health, Harvard School of Public Health, Landmark Center West, Boston, MA, USA
2] Worcester County Beekeepers Association, Northbridge, MA, USA
3] Worcester County Beekeepers Association, Holden, MA, USA

Impact of chronic exposure to a pyrethroid pesticide on bumblebees and interactions with a trypanosome parasite by Gemma L. Baron*, Nigel E. Raine and Mark J. F. Brown. School of Biological Sciences, Royal Holloway University of London, Egham, Surrey TW20 0EX, UK



The Neonic Problem:Racing to Gauge a Global Threat to Birds and Bees by Cynthia Palmer, Pesticide Program Director, ABC

Insecticides on Birds. American Bird Conservancy, March 2013
Macro-Invertebrate Decline in Surface Water Polluted with Imidacloprid“. Van Dijk TC, Van Staalduinen MA, Van der Sluijs JP (2013)  PLoS ONE 8(5): e62374. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0062374

EFSA Opinion on Neurotoxic Potential Imidacloprid  Acetamiprid
Neonicotinoid Seed Treatments and Honey Bee Health, Bee Health – July 26, 2013 by Greg Hunt and Christian Krupke, Purdue University

Neonicotinoid clothianidin adversely affects insect immunity and promotes replication of a viral pathogen in honey bees by Gennaro Di Priscoa, Valeria Cavaliereb, Desiderato Annosciac, Paola Varricchioa, Emilio Caprioa, Francesco Nazzic, Giuseppe Gargiulob, and Francesco Pennacchioa.
Neonicotinoids, bee disorders and the sustainability of pollinator services by Jeroen P van der Sluijs, Noa Simon-Delso, Dave Goulson, Laura Maxim, Jean-Marc Bonmatin and Luc P Belzunces. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, Volume 5, Issues 3–4, Pages 293-305 (September 2013)


The 2013 International Conference on Pollinator Biology, Health, and Policy

Raine pesticides talk PSU -15Aug13 Combined pesticide exposure severely impacts individual and colony level traits in bumblebees – Richard Gill, Oscar Ramos-­Rodriguez, Nigel Raine.

02 Goulson Understanding the impacts of sublethal exposure to pesticides on bee colony health – Professor Dave Goulson, Life Sciences, University of Sussex.

10 Purcell-Miramontes – USDA Programs That Inform Pesticide Policy = Mary Purcell-Miramontes, USDA-National Institute of Food & Agriculture

Hoekstra – Pollinators and Pesticides: Integral Components of Sustainable Agriculture – Paul Hoekstra, CropLife Canada, Syngenta

13 Fischer – Development of an improved pollinator testing and risk assessment process in North America: a progress report – David L. Fischer, Bayer CropScience LP

06 Thompson – Progress and future prospects for assessing the risks posed to pollinators by pesticides – science needs – Helen Thompson, Centre for Chemical Safety and Stewardship.

09 Adams Pollinators and Pesticides: A 2013 View Toward the Future – Laurie Davies Adams, Executive Director, Pollinator Partnership.

——— end of conference presentations

jpe12111 An overview of the environmental risks posed by neonicotinoid insecticides by Dave Goulson, Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Stirling, Stirling, FK9 4LA, UK.

Neonicotinoids, bee disorders and the sustainability of pollinator services by Jeroen P van der Sluijs, Noa Simon-Delso, Dave Goulson, Laura Maxim, Jean-Marc Bonmatin, and Luc P Belzunces.

The molecular basis of simple relationships between exposure concentration and
toxic effects with time by Henk A. Tennekes and Francisco Sánchez-Bayo. Why there is no safe level of use for neo-nicotinoids.

Pesticides Under Fire For Risks to Pollinators – Science May 2013.

EU Ban puts spotlight on complex effects of neonicotinoids – Michael Gross, Current Biology Vol 23 No 11.

Mineau Palmer 2013 – The Impact of the Nation’s Most Widely Used Insecticides on Birds – American Bird Conservancy, March 2013. This report shows that similar errors in risk assessment have been made with regard to birds as were made to insects – the chronic/reproductive toxicity of neonicotinoids to birds is high. This was recognised very early on in the regulatory reviews of the various active ingredients. Yet high reproductive toxicity in birds is typically ignored in the pesticide review process.

Sublethal doses of imidacloprid decreased size of hypopharyngeal glands and respiratory rhythm of honeybees in vivo. Fani HATJINA [1],Chrisovalantis PAPAEFTHIMIOU [2],Leonidas CHARISTOS [1],Taylan DOGAROGLU [3], Maria BOUGA [4], Christina EMMANOUIL [4], Gerard ARNOLD [5]

[1] Hellenic Institute of Apiculture, Hellenic Agricultural Organization
[2] Laboratory of Animal Physiology, Department of Zoology, School of Biology, Aristotle University, Thessaloniki, Greece
[3] Mugla University, Science Faculty, Biology Department, 48000 Mugla, Turkey
[4] Lab of Agricultural Zoology and Entomology, Agricultural University of Athens
[5] Laboratoire Evolution, Génomes, Spéciation, CNRS UPR 9034, 91198 Gif-sur-Yvette, France

Exposure to acetylcholinesterase inhibitors alters the physiology and motor function of honeybees  Sally M. Williamson[1], Christopher Moffat [2], Martha A. E. Gomersall [1], Nastja Saranzewa [2], Christopher N. Connolly [2] and Geraldine A.Wright [1]

[1] Centre for Behaviour and Evolution, Institute of Neuroscience, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK
[2] Division of Neuroscience, Medical Research Institute, Ninewells Medical School, University of Dundee, Dundee, UK

journal pone 0057457 Mineau and Whiteside Pesticide Acute Toxicity Is a Better Correlate of U.S. Grassland Bird Declines than Agricultural Intensification by Pierre Mineau, Melanie Whiteside.

Francisco Sánchez-Bayo, Henk A. Tennekes and Koichi Goka (2013). Impact of Systemic Insecticides on Organisms and Ecosystems, Insecticides – Development of Safer and More Effective Technologies, Prof. Stanislav Trdan (Ed.), ISBN: 978-953-51-0958-7, InTech, DOI: 10.5772/52831. Available from:

Pesticides and Their Involvement in Colony Collapse Disorder. Bee Health January 28, 2013 by JIM FRAZIER, CHRIS MULLIN, MARYANN FRAZIER and SARA ASHCRAFT Department of Entomology; Penn State University, 501 ASI Building, University Park, PA. Jointly published in the American Bee Journal and in Bee Culture, August 2011. Managed Pollinator Coordinated Agriculture Program (CAP) Updates. A National Research and Extension Initiative to Reverse Pollinator Decline. This is part of an ongoing series of updates from the Managed Pollinator CAP. More information about the CAP can be found at:

Be-e-coming_experts_2013 This article by Sainath Suryanarayanan (Department of Community & Environmental Sociology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, USA) and Daniel Lee Kleinman (Department of Community & Environmental Sociology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, USA; Department of Sociology, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, South Korea) explores the politics of expertise in an ongoing controversy in the United States over the role of certain insecticides in colony collapse disorder – a phenomenon involving mass die-offs of honey bees. Numerous long-time commercial beekeepers contend that newer systemic agricultural insecticides are a crucial part of the cocktail of factors responsible for colony collapse disorder. Many scientists actively researching colony collapse disorder reject the beekeepers’ claims, citing the lack of conclusive evidence from field experiments by academic and industry toxicologists. US Environmental Protection Agency regulators, in turn, privilege the latters’ approach to the issue, and use the lack of conclusive evidence of systemic insecticides’ role in colony collapse disorder to justify permitting these chemicals to remain on the market.

Determination of seven neonicotinoid insecticides in beeswax by liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray-mass spectrometry using a fused-core column by
Karen P. Yá˜nez, José L. Bernal, María J. Nozal, María T. Martín and José Bernal

EFSA Conclusion on Neonicitinoids 2013 Rachel Sharp EFSA Pesticides Unit

Late lessons from early warnings II – Bee decline web debate An illuminating dialogue between Dr Richard Schmuck, Head of Department of Environmental Safety of Bayer CropScience and authors of the chapter ‘Seed-dressing systemic insecticides and honeybees’ Laura Maxim and Jeroen van der Sluijs. The chapter was published in the report ‘Late lessons from early warnings: science, precaution, innovation’ (EEA, 2013) available at: The European Environment Agency report comprehensively assesses the historical conflict between commercial companies and protection of the environment.

Bulletin of Insectology 66(1):1-9, 2013ISSN 1721-8861 “Reduction in homing flights in the honey bee Apis mellifera after a sublethal dose of neonicotinoid insecticides” Takashi MATSUMOTO Honey Bee Research Unit, NARO Institute of Livestock and Grassland Science, Tsukuba, Japan.

Bulletin of Insectology 66(1):119-126, 2013 ISSN 1721-8861 “Toxicity of neonicotinoid insecticides on different honey bee genotypes” Daniela LAURINO, Aulo MANINO, Augusto PATETTA, Marco PORPORATO Dipartimento di Scienze Agrarie, Forestali e Alimentari, Università di Torino, Italy.

Neonicotinoid clothianidin adversely affects insect immunity and promotes replication of a viralpathogen in honey bees.PNAS November 12, 2013 vol. 110 no. 46. Gennaro Di Prisco [a],Valeria Cavaliere [b], Desiderato Annoscia [c], Paola Varricchio [a], Emilio Caprio [a], Francesco Nazzi [c], Giuseppe Gargiulo [b], and Francesco Pennacchio [a].
a)Dipartimento di Agraria, Laboratorio di Entomologia E. Tremblay, Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, I-80055 Portici, Italy;
b)Dipartimento di Farmaciae Biotecnologie, Università di Bologna, I-40126 Bologna, Italy; and
c)Dipartimento di Scienze Agrarie e Ambientali, Università degli Studi di Udine, I-33100
Udine, Italy


Oliveira_ea_2013_thiamethoxam_bee_brain Side-Effects of Thiamethoxam on the Brain and Midgut of the Africanized Honeybee Apis mellifera (Hymenopptera: Apidae) Regiane Alves Oliveira, Thaisa Cristina Roat, Stephan Malfitano Carvalho, Osmar Malaspina. Centro de Estudos de Insetos Sociais, Departamento de Biologia, Instituto de Biocieˆ ncias de Rio Claro, UNESP-Univ. Estadual Paulista, Av. 24A, 1515, Bela Vista, 13.500-900 Rio Claro Sa˜ o Paulo, Brazil
vol65-2012-273-280sgolastra Effects of neonicotinoid dust from maize seed-dressing on honey bees by Fabio S GOLASTRA, Teresa R ENZI, Stefano D RAGHETTI, Piotr M EDRZYCKI, Marco L ODESANI, Stefano M AINI, Claudio P ORRINI

DEFRAs Evidence to the EAC A comprehensive summary of DEFRA’s position

Farooqui_neonicotinoids_CCD A potential link among biogenic amines-based pesticides, learning and memory, and colony collapse disorder: A unique hypothesis, by Tahira Farooqui, Department of Entomology, Center for Molecular Neurobiology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210-1220, USA

UK Government Workshop “Insect Pollinators: linking research and policy, Church House Conference Centre, Dean’s Yard, Westminster, London, 14 February 2012″

IUCN_Tokyo_2012_NeoNicotinoids_Lecture_JvdS Integrated Assessment on Systemic Pesticides by Dr. Jeroen P. van der Sluijs

Existing Scientific Evidence of Neonicotinoids & Bees This policy note from the EU Department for Economic and Scientific Policy contains some useful summaries of relevant research, including soil persistence rates, and defers in relation to pesticide authorisations to the on-going review by the European Food Safety Authority.  The policy concludes that “ the precautionary principle in accordance with the Regulation (EC) No 1107/2009 should be applied when using neonicotinoids.”

Submissions to the UK Government Environmental Audit Committee investigation into neo-nicotinoids.

Buglife A review of recent research relating to the impact of neonicotinoids on the environment by Matt Shardlow, November 2012.

Combined pesticide exposure severely affects individual and colony-level traits in bees by Richard J. Gill, Oscar Ramos-Rodriguez & Nigel E. Raine from the School of Biological Sciences, Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham, Surrey, TW20 0EX.

The Decline of England’s Bees, Policy Review and Recommendations, by Tom D. Breeze, Stuart P.M. Roberts and Simon G. Potts, University of Reading Centre for  Agri-Environment Research. 4/29/2012.

bbka news article may 2012 Pesticide Risk Assessment for Pollinators Workshop: A Beekeeper’s view, by John Hoar. BBKA News May 2012.

EFSA Bee Risk Assessment Scientific Opinion on the science behind the development of a risk assessment of Plant Protection Products on bees (Apis mellifera, Bombus spp. and solitary bees). EFSA Panel on Plant Protection Products and their Residues (PPR) January 2012.

Krupke 2012 Multiple Routes of Pesticide Exposure for Honey Bees Living Near Agricultural Fields. Christian H. Krupke, Greg J. Hunt, Brian D. Eitzer, Gladys Andino, Krispn Given, Perdue University.

NeuralEffectsBelzunces2012 Neural effects of insecticides in the honey bee. Luc P. BELZUNCES, Sylvie TCHAMITCHIAN, Jean-Luc BRUNET

LU 2012 In situ replication of honey bee colony collapse disorder. Chensheng LU, Kenneth M. WARCHOL, Richard A. CALLAHAN. 1Department of Environmental Health, Harvard School of Public Health, Landmark Center West, Boston, MA, USA

Science-neonicotinoids from SCIENCE VOL 335 30 MARCH 2012 Field Research on Bees Raises Concern About Low-Dose Pesticides

Bees-Pesticides-Whitehorn-03-30-12-Science Neonicotinoid Pesticide Reduces
Bumble Bee Colony Growth and Queen Production, from University of Sterling School of Natural Sciences.

Bees-Pesticides-Henry-03-30-12-Science A Common Pesticide Decreases
Foraging Success and Survival in Honey Bees, by scientists at INRA (The French National Institute for Agricultural Research).

BeesPesticides_SOS_FINAL (1) ‘BEES AND PESTICIDES – THE STATE OF THE SCIENCE’  from Pesticide Action Network North America which was submitted to the American EPA on 21st March 2012 as the basis for PANNA’s petition that the EPA urgently review the legality of its decision to award Clothianidin a conditional registration, against the advice of its own Science division in 2003.  This was written by Heather Pilatic of PANNA.

Girolami_ea_2012 Aerial powdering of bees inside mobile cages and the extent of neonicotinoid cloud surrounding corn drillers V. Girolami, M. Marzaro, L. Vivan, L. Mazzon, C. Giorio, D. Marton & A. Tapparo

2161-0525-S4-001 :Time-Dependent Toxicity of Neonicotinoids and Other Toxicants: Implications for a New Approach to Risk Assessment by Henk A. Tennekes and Francisco Sánchez-Bayo

schneider 2012 RFID Tracking of Sublethal Effects of Two Neonicotinoid Insecticides on the Foraging Behavior of Apis mellifera Christof W. Schneider, Jürgen Tautz, Bernd Grünewald, Stefan Fuchs

Blacquiere etal 2012 Neonicotinoids in bees: a review on concentrations, side-effects and risk assessment. Tjeerd Blacquie`re, Guy Smagghe, Cornelis A. M. van Gestel and Veerle Mommaerts


Report looks at the facts behind pesticide controversy

PORTLAND, Ore.— A report released today by the Xerces Society for Invertebrate Conservation details potential negative impacts of neonicotinoid insecticides to honey bees and other important agricultural pollinators.

Beekeepers and environmentalists have expressed growing concern about the impact of this class of insecticides. Those concerns are based on the fact that neonicotinoids are absorbed into plant tissue and can be present in pollen and nectar, making them toxic to pollinators.

A possible link between neonicotinoids and honey bee die-offs has led to controversy across the United States and Europe. Several European countries have reexamined the use of neonicotinoids in crops such as corn, canola and sunflower.

“This comprehensive report summarizes all of the peer reviewed research on the impact of these pesticides on bees”, said Jennifer Hopwood, Xerces Society Pollinator Specialist and co-author of the report. “We hope this information will allow for better informed decision making by those who regulate and use these insecticides.”

Tapparo_ea_2012_es2035152 Assessment of the Environmental Exposure of Honeybees to Particulate Matter Containing Neonicotinoid Insecticides Coming from Corn Coated Seeds Andrea Tapparo, Daniele Marton, Chiara Giorio, Alessandro Zanella, Lidia Soldà, Matteo Marzaro, Linda Vivan, and Vincenzo Girolami

Aufauvreetal2012 Parasite-insecticide interactions: a case study of Nosema ceranae and fipronil synergy on honeybee. Julie Aufauvre, David G. Biron, Cyril Vidau, Re´gis Fontbonne, Mathieu Roudel, Marie Diogon, Bernard Vigue`s, Luc P. Belzunces, Fre´de´ric Delbac & Nicolas Blot

Pettisetal2012 Pesticide exposure in honey bees results in increased levels of the gut pathogen Nosema. Jeffery S. Pettis & Dennis vanEngelsdorp & Josephine Johnson & Galen Dively.


vidau (published 2011) Exposure to Sublethal Doses of Fipronil and Thiacloprid Highly Increases Mortality of Honeybees Previously Infected by Nosema ceranae Cyril Vidau, Marie Diogon, Julie Aufauvre, Régis Fontbonne, Bernard Viguès, Jean-Luc Brunet, Catherine Texier, David G. Biron, Nicolas Blot, Hicham El Alaoui, Luc P. Belzunces, Frédéric Delbac

Neonics Global use 2011 Overview of the Status and Global Strategy for Neonicotinoids. Authored by Bayer – Peter Jeschke, Ralf Nauen, Michael Schindler and Alfred Elbert.

Laurino 2011 Toxicity of neonicotinoid insecticides to honey bees: laboratory tests Daniela LAURINO, Marco PORPORATO, Augusto PATETTA, Aulo MANINO 2011

The Role of Pesticides in Honeybee Decline 2011 The Role of Pesticides in Honeybee Decline. Brian Eitzer, Department of Analytical Chemistry, The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station.

Marzaro 2011 Lethal aerial powdering of honey bees with neonicotinoids from fragments of maize seed coat. Matteo MARZARO, Linda VIVAN, Andrea TARGA, Luca MAZZON, Nicola MORI1, Moreno GREATTI, Edoardo PETRUCCO TOFFOLO, Andrea DI BERNARDO, Chiara GIORIO, Daniele MARTON, Andrea TAPPARO, Vincenzo GIROLAMI

Open_Meeting_2011_CRD A lecture by Mark Clook from the CRD at an open meeting of the ACP in 2011.

APPGSTA – Bee Health Meeting Notes – April 2011 All Party Parliamentary Group on Science and Technology in Agriculture. ‘Bee Health and Pesticides’ Monday 4 April 2011, 4.30-6.00pm, Boothroyd Room, Portcullis House, Westminster Chair: George Freeman MP, Keynote Speaker: Dr Jeff Pettis, Research Leader, USDA Bee Research Laboratory

Wu 2011 Sub-Lethal Effects of Pesticide Residues in Brood Comb on Worker Honey Bee (Apis mellifera) Development and Longevity. Judy Y. Wu, Carol M. Anelli, Walter S. Sheppard Department of Entomology, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington, United States of America

Moghaddam et al 2011 Effects of Imidacloprid on the Biodiversity of Soil Microbes in Selected Soils of Malaysia. Nasrin Sabour Moghaddam, Mohamad Pauzi Zakaria, Dzolkhifli Omar, Kamaruzaman Sijam and Reza Khakvar.

sluijs The neonicotinoid era of pest management: impacts on pollinators and ecosystems
Recherches en Economie-Ecologie, Eco-innovation et ingénierie du Développement Soutenable (REEDS) Université de Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, France
Jeroen P. van der Sluijs 2011

Tapparo 2011 Rapid analysis of neonicotinoid insecticides in guttation drops of corn seedlings obtained from coated seeds. Andrea Tapparo,Chiara Giorio, Matteo Marzaro, Daniele Marton, Lidia Solda and Vincenzo Girolamib

Pesticide Bee Declines IPM JanFeb2011 by William Quarles. The IPM Practitioner, Volume 33, No 1, January 2011.

Systemic Pesticides GMO Crops – IPM Practitioner by William Quarles. The IPM Practitioner, Volume 33, No 3 March 2011.


Tennekes_2010_Toxicology :The significance of the Druckrey–Küpfmüller equation for risk
assessment—The toxicity of neonicotinoid insecticides to arthropods is reinforced by exposure time

Maus_and_Nauen_2010 :Response to the publication:Tennekes,H.A.(2010): The
significance of the Druckrey–Küpfmüller equation for risk assessment—The toxicity of neonicotinoid insecticides to arthropods is reinforced by exposure time

TOX50689 :The significance of the Druckrey–Küpfmüller equation for risk assessment—The toxicity of neonicotinoid insecticides to arthropods is reinforced by exposure time: Responding to a Letter to the Editor by Drs. C. Maus and R. Nauen of Bayer Crop-Science AG

2010 ECTX Mommaerts Risk assessment for side-effects of neonicotinoids against bumblebees with and without impairing foraging behavior, Veerle Mommaerts, Sofie Reynders, Jana Boulet, Linde Besard, Guido Sterk, Guy Smagghe

Maini 2010 The puzzle of honey bee losses: a brief review. Stefano MAINI, Piotr MEDRZYCKI, Claudio PORRINI.

Ellis 2010 Pesticides Applied to Crops and Honey Bee Toxicity M.D. ELLIS

MaximSluijs2010 Expert explanations of honeybee losses in areas of extensive agriculture in France: Gaucho® compared with other supposed causal factors. L Maxim and J P van der Sluijs

Creswell 2010 A meta-analysis of experiments testing the effects of a neonicotinoid insecticide (imidacloprid) on honey bees James E. Cresswell 2010

Alaux 2010 Interactions between Nosema microspores and a neonicotinoid weaken honeybees (Apis mellifera) Cédric Alaux, Jean-Luc Brunet, Claudia Dussaubat, Fanny Mondet, Sylvie Tchamitchan, Marianne Cousin, Julien Brillard, Aurelie Baldy, Luc P. Belzunces and Yves Le Conte 2010

029-034-VisserBlacquiere-2010 Survival rate of honeybee (Apis mellifera) workers after exposure to sublethal concentrations of imidacloprid. Adindah Visser & Tjeerd Blacquière

Han 2010 Use of an innovative T-tube maze assay and the proboscis extension response assay to assess sublethal effects of GM products and pesticides on learning capacity of the honey bee Apis mellifera L. Peng Han • Chang-Ying Niu • Chao-Liang Lei • Jin-Jie Cui • Nicolas Desneux

MSc Thesis Tessa van Dijk Effects of neonicotinoid pesticide pollution of Dutch surface water on non-target species abundance. MSc Thesis Tessa van Dijk 2 July 2010

APENET_2010 “Effects of coated maize seed on honey bees” Report based on results obtained from the second year (2010) activity of the APENET project.

Mullinetal2010 High Levels of Miticides and Agrochemicals in North American Apiaries: Implications for Honey Bee Health. Christopher A. Mullin, Maryann Frazier, James L. Frazier, Sara Ashcraft, Roger Simonds, Dennis vanEngelsdorp, Jeffery S. Pettis

Kamel 2010 Determination of neonicotinoids and their metabolites in pollen and nectar of field treated pumpkin to assess their potential exposure to honey bees. Alaa Kameland Galen Dively US EPA.

clothianidinepamemo  UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Clothianidin Registration of Prosper T400 Seed Treatment on Mustard Seed (Oilseed and Condiment) and Poncho/Votivo Seed Treatment on Cotton.


Buglife neonics report The impact of neonicotinoid insecticides on bumblebees, Honey bees and other nontarget invertebrates by Vicky Kindemba, 2009

Bortolotti 2009 Spring honey bee losses in Italy Laura Bortolotti, Anna Gloria Sabatini, Franco Mutinelli, Mario Astuti, Antonio Lavazza, Roberto Piro, Donato Tesoriero, Piotr Medrzycki, Fabio Sgolastra, Claudio Porrini 2009

Nguyenetal2009 Does Imidacloprid Seed-Treated Maize Have an Impact on Honey Bee Mortality? B. K. Nguyen, C. Saegerman, C. Pirard, J. Mignon, J. Widart, B. Thirionet, F. J. Verheggen, D. Berkvens, E. De Pauw, and E. Haubruge


Girolami 2009 Translocation of Neonicotinoid Insecticides From Coated Seeds to Seedling Guttation Drops: A Novel Way of Intoxication for Bees V. GIROLAMI, L. MAZZON, A. SQUARTINI, N. MORI, M. MARZARO, A. DI BERNARDO, M. GREATTI, C. GIORIO, AND A. TAPPARO

Apenet_2009 “Effects of coated maize seed on honey bees” Report based on results obtained from the first year of activity of the APENET project

Pre – 2009

Yang_ea_2008 Abnormal Foraging Behavior Induced by Sublethal Dosage of Imidacloprid in the Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) by E. C. YANG, Y. C. CHUANG,Y. L. CHEN, AND L. H. CHANG

Barbara_etal_2007 Study of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors on cultured antennal lobe neurones from adult honeybee brains Guillaume Stephane Barbara, Bernd Grunewald, Sandrine Paute, Monique Gauthier, Vale´rie Raymond-Delpech

thompson maus Perspective – The relevance of sublethal effects in honey bee testing for pesticide risk assessment. Helen M Thompson and Christian Maus

Anhalt etal 2007 Biodegradation of imidacloprid by an isolated soil microorganism. JENNIFER C. ANI-IALT, THOMAS B. MOORMAN and WILLIAM C. KOSKINEN

Frazier Protecting Honey Bees from Chemical Pesticides, Maryann Frazier, Senior Extension Associate, Penn State

Ramirez-Romero_05 Effects of Cry1Ab protoxin, deltamethrin and imidacloprid on the foraging activity and the learning performances of the honeybee Apis mellifera, a comparative approach Ricardo RAMIREZ-ROMERO, Josette CHAUFAUX, Minh-Hà PHAM-DELÈGUE

Bolboaca 2005 Molecular Descriptors Family on Structure Activity Relationships 2. Insecticidal Activity of Neonicotinoid Compounds Sorana BOLBOACĂ, Lorentz JÄNTSCHI

Bonmatin 2005 Quantification of Imidacloprid Uptake in Maize Crops. J. M. BONMATIN, P. A. MARCHAND, R. CHARVET,  I. MOINEAU, E. R. BENGSCH, AND M. E. COLIN

Bonmatin 2005 B Behaviour of Imidacloprid in Fields. Toxicity for Honey Bees. J. M. Bonmatin, I. Moineau, R. Charvet, M. E. Colin, C. Fleche, E. R. Bengsch

Mode of Action of Insecticides Mode of Action of Insecticides and Related Pest Control Chemicals for Production Agriculture, Ornamentals, and Turf. Amy E. Brown, Ph.D., Coordinator Pesticide Education and Assessment Programs Revised May 2006 (orig. pub. September 2005).

colin2004 A Method to Quantify and Analyze the Foraging Activity of Honey Bees: Relevance to the Sublethal Effects Induced by Systemic Insecticides (2004) M. E. Colin, J. M. Bonmatin, I. Moineau, C. Gaimon, S. Brun, J. P. Vermandere

EPA Clothianidin 2005  UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY EFED Registration Chapter for Clothianidin for use on Potatoes and Grapes as a spray treatment and as a Seed Treatment for Sorghum and Cotton.

Rortais 2005 Modes of honeybees exposure to systemic insecticides: estimated amounts of contaminated pollen and nectar consumed by different categories of bees. Agnès RORTAIS, Gérard ARNOLD, Marie-Pierre HALM, Frédérique TOUFFET-BRIENS

Decourtye_ea_2004 (published 2004) Effects of imidacloprid and deltamethrin on associative learning in honeybees under semi-field and laboratory conditions Axel Decourtye, James Devillers, Sophie Cluzeau, Mercedes Charreton, and Minh-Ha` Pham-Dele`guea

Schmuck 2003 Effects of imidacloprid and common plant metabolites of imidacloprid in the honeybee: toxicological and biochemical considerations Richard SCHMUCK, Ralf NAUEN, Ulrich EBBINGHAUS-KINTSCHER Bayer CropScience, Institute for Environmental Biology, Monheim, Germany

Thompson 2003 Behavioural effects of pesticides in bees–their potential for use in risk assessment. HM Thompson – Ecotoxicology, 2003

CST Imidacloprid (published 2003, in French) In the mid to late 1990s, French beekeepers reported a significant loss of bees, which they attributed to the use of imidacloprid. In 1999, the French Minister of Agriculture suspended the use of imidacloprid on sunflower seeds and appointed a team of expert scientists to examine the impact of imidacloprid on bees. In 2003, the panel of expert scientists called the Comite Scientific et Technique issued a 108-page report, which concluded that imidacloprid poses a significant risk to bees. In 2004, the French Minister of Agriculture suspended the use of imidacloprid as a seed treatment for maize (corn).


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